Children's Hospital Colorado

Clubfoot (Talipes Equinovarus) in Infants

What is clubfoot?

Clubfoot (also known as talipes equinovarus) is a deformity of the foot present at birth that impacts one or both feet. A child with clubfoot has an abnormally positioned foot that causes the child to turn their ankle inward, to the point where it almost touches the inside of the leg.

What are the types of clubfoot?

There are three different types of clubfoot:

  1. Idiopathic: the most common type of clubfoot, in which the cause is unknown.
  2. Syndromic: usually associated with a condition that involves another part of the body.
  3. Neurogenic: usually a result of a spinal cord abnormality or other neurologic disorder.

Who gets clubfoot?

Clubfoot is the most common congenital pediatric orthopedic condition in infants, meaning it is present at birth. It occurs in about 6 out of every 1,000 live births. At this time, there is no known cause for clubfoot, but it is does run in families.

What are the signs of clubfoot?

Clubfoot is identified when the foot or both feet are rotated internally at the ankle towards the calf of the opposite leg, with the toes pointing down and a notable crease at the mid-foot. A tight Achilles tendon (the tendon that connects the calf muscle to the heel bone) is also noted.

What tests are used to diagnose clubfoot?

Clubfoot is most commonly detected on a prenatal ultrasound or shortly after birth. No specific tests are used to diagnose the condition.

How do providers at Children's Hospital Colorado make a diagnosis?

In the majority of cases, clubfoot is diagnosed on a prenatal ultrasound. If clubfoot is not noted on a prenatal ultrasound, it can be easily diagnosed after birth by observing the feet.

How is clubfoot treated?

At our General Orthopedics Program, we offer a number of treatment options for clubfoot, including:

  1. Serial casting: The foot is gradually stretched into the correct position and then held in place with casts. These casts are changed at the clinic once a week for about 6-8 weeks.
  2. Tenotomies (tendon lengthening): In the majority of cases, after we have corrected as much of the foot as possible through casting, your child may require a heel cord (Achilles) tenotomy. A tight Achilles tendon prevents the foot from being flat. Achilles tenotomies are often done in the clinic but, in some cases, may be done in the operating room where your child will be placed under anesthesia (medicine that makes them sleep). During a tenotomy, a surgeon will divide the tendon into two so that new tendon can grow in the space that's left behind. This procedure helps improve the ankle joint's range of motion.
  3. Bracing: After we have obtained the correct position of the foot, it is necessary to maintain the correction. Braces hold the feet in the correct position and are typically worn full time for 3-4 months, then at night and during naps for up to 5 years.
  4. Stretching: Along with bracing, it is very important that your child does daily stretching exercises. These exercises will be taught by a member of our team during your child's clinic visits.

Why choose Children's Colorado for clubfoot treatment?

The Program at Children's Colorado is comprised of experts that treat clubfoot patients using the Ponseti Method (the International Gold Standard of treatment) from birth to teenage years.

Our multidisciplinary team works together to ensure each patient receives the appropriate attention and treatment for proper correction of the deformity. Our providers are "Ponseti-trained," which means we do not perform surgery for clubfoot and instead focus on gentle manipulation and casting.

Our Program provides:

  1. A designated clubfoot clinic with a multidisciplinary care team
  2. Multiple providers at all satellite clinic locations for family convenience
  3. Prenatal consultations for the expectant mother and her family

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