Urgent or Emergency Care?
If you believe your child needs immediate attention and you have concerns for a life-threatening emergency, call 911. Not sure what counts as urgent and what's an emergency when your child is sick or injured? When it can't wait, know where to take your kids.
Help Me Decide
- Any rash on the skin covered by a diaper
- Age: Diaper-wearing age group (birth to 3 years)
Causes of Diaper Rash
- Irritant Diaper Rash. Mild rashes can be caused by the drying effect of soaps.
- Stool Diaper Rash. Stool left on the skin can be very irritating because it contains bacteria. Urine alone has no germs in it and usually doesn't irritate the skin. This rash is common on the scrotum or anywhere that stool can hide. Small ulcers around the anus are often from prolonged stool contact.
- Ammonia Diaper Rash. Stool and urine left in diaper too long can combine to make ammonia. It can cause a mild chemical burn. The fumes when you change the diaper will smell like ammonia. This is more common with cloth diapers.
- Diarrhea Diaper Rash. Rashes just found around the anus are common during bouts of diarrhea. Diarrhea stools also contain enzymes that digest food and irritate the skin.
- Yeast Diaper Rash. Rashes from irritants can get a secondary infection with yeast. Yeast infections are bright red. They can be raw and weepy. The borders are sharp. Small red bumps or even pimples may occur just beyond the border. If treated correctly, a diaper rash should be cured in 3 days. If not, it has probably been invaded by yeast. Treat with an anti-yeast cream.
- Bacterial Diaper Rash. Bacteria can also cause a secondary infection of irritated skin. This is less common than yeast rashes. Bacteria cause sores, yellow scabs, pimples or draining pus. They look like impetigo, a local skin bacterial infection. Can also become a painful red lump (boil)
- Cellulitis (Serious). The bacterial infection spreads into the skin. Gives redness that spreads out from the sore. The red area is painful to the touch.
- Staph Scalded Skin Syndrome (Serious). SSSS is caused by a Staph bacteria. The main finding is widespread large blisters. The skin is bright red. The baby acts very sick.
Symptoms of Diaper Rash
- Mild rashes just have areas of pink, dry skin.
- Severe rashes have areas of red skin. In some areas, the skin may become raw or even bleed.
- Pink rashes are not painful, but raw ones can be very painful. This can lead crying and poor sleep.
Prevention of Recurrent Diaper Rash
- Change diapers more often. Focus on preventing skin contact with stool.
- Rinse your baby's skin with lots of warm water when cleaning off stool. Don't depend on diaper wipes alone to cleanse the skin.
- Be sure to clean stool off all the skin folds. Cleaning the scrotum can be a challenge.
Call Doctor Now or Go to ER
- Bright red skin that peels off in sheets
- Fever and looks infected (spreading redness)
- Age less than 1 month old with tiny water blisters or pimples in a group
- Age less than 1 month old and looks infected (yellow scabs, spreading redness)
- Age under 1 month old and looks or acts abnormal in any way
- Your child looks or acts very sick
- You think your child needs to be seen, and the problem is urgent
Call Doctor Within 24 Hours
- Any pimples, blisters, boils, yellow scabs, or open sores
- You think your child needs to be seen, but the problem is not urgent
Call Doctor During Office Hours
- Rash is very raw or bleeds
- Rash has spread outside the diaper area
- Rash is not better after 3 days of using yeast cream
- You have other questions or concerns
Self Care at Home
Care Advice for Diaper Rash
- What You Should Know About Diaper Rashes:
- Diaper rashes are very common in babies.
- Often caused by not cleaning stool off the skin soon enough.
- Stool is a strong irritant to the skin.
- Here's some care advice that should help.
- Change More Often:
- Change diapers more often to prevent skin contact with stool.
- You may want to get up once during the night to change the diaper.
- Rinse with Warm Water:
- Rinse the baby's skin with lots of warm water during each diaper change.
- Wash with a mild soap (such as Dove) only after stools. Reason: Using soap often can interfere with healing.
- Do not use diaper wipes. Reason: They leave a film of bacteria on the skin.
- Leave Bottom Open to Air:
- Expose the bottom to air as much as possible.
- Attach the diaper loosely at the waist to help with air exposure.
- When napping, take the diaper off and lay your child on a towel. Reason: Dryness reduces the risk of yeast infections.
- Anti-Yeast Cream:
- Most diaper rashes respond to 3 days of warm water cleansing and air exposure. If you've tried this or the rash is bright red, suspect a yeast infection.
- Buy an anti-yeast cream (such as Lotrimin.) No prescription is needed.
- Use this cream 3 times per day.
- Raw Skin - Treatment:
- If the bottom is very raw, soak in warm water for 10 minutes. Add 2 tablespoons (30 ml) of baking soda to the tub of warm water.
- Do this 3 times per day.
- Then, put an anti-yeast ointment (such as Lotrimin) on the rash.
- Pain Medicine:
- To help with the pain, give an acetaminophen product (such as Tylenol).
- Another choice is an ibuprofen product (such as Advil). Avoid ibuprofen under 6 months of age.
- Use as needed.
- Age less than 3 months. Don't use pain medicines unless your doctor says it's okay. Have your child seen if the rash is causing a lot of pain.
- Sore or Scab on End of the Penis Treatment:
- Use an antibiotic ointment (such as Polysporin). No prescription is needed.
- Do this 3 times per day.
- Reason: The sore is a bacterial infection that can cause painful urination.
- Diarrhea Rash - Use Protective Ointment:
- If your child has diarrhea and a rash around the anus, use a protective ointment. Examples are Vaseline or Desitin.
- This forms a barrier between the skin and the stool.
- Otherwise, these generally are not needed.
- Caution: Wash off the skin before putting it on.
- What to Expect:
- With proper treatment, most diaper rashes are better in 3 days.
- If the rash does not respond, a yeast infection has probably occurred.
- Call Your Doctor If:
- Rash isn't much better after 3 days of using yeast cream
- It starts to look infected (with sores and scabs)
- You think your child needs to be seen
- Your child becomes worse
Care Advice for Diaper Rash
This photo shows a red diaper rash in the area under the diaper.
Any diaper rash that lasts longer than a couple days can become secondarily infected with Candida (yeast). Note the red spots ("satellite lesions") outside the main area of redness.
If a yeast infection is suspected, clotrimazole cream (e.g., Lotrimin; over-the-counter) should be applied 4 times daily.
The information contained in these topics is not intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice, it is provided for educational purposes only. You assume full responsibility for how you choose to use this information.
Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified healthcare provider before starting any new treatment or discontinuing an existing treatment. Talk with your healthcare provider about any questions you may have regarding a medical condition. Nothing contained in these topics is intended to be used for medical diagnosis or treatment.
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Supplement - The information and materials presented here in Pediatric HouseCalls Symptom Checker are meant to supplement the information that you obtain from your physician. If there is a disagreement between the information presented herein and what your physician has told you -- it is more likely that your physician is correct. He or she has the benefit of knowing your child's medical problems.
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- Your child's doctor can perform a physical examination and any necessary tests.
- Your child could have an underlying medical problem that requires a physician to detect.
- If your child is taking medications, they could influence how he experiences various symptoms.
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